Causes of Gynecomastia
results from an altered estrogen-androgen balance, in favor of
estrogen. It may occur in infants as well as boys in puberty and
usually regresses on its own.
This is called normal gynaecomastia.
All individuals, men and women, have female (estrogen) and male hormones (androgens). During puberty, the levels of these hormones keep fluctuating and increase in a varied degree from individual to individual leading to a transient increase in estrogen levels.
Studies on the frequency of gynecomastia in normal adolescents have shown a wide range from 4% -69%. Gynecomastia caused by temporary changes in hormones usually disappears within 6 months or 2 years the latest.
A variety of conditions are involved in the appearance of gynecomastia
- Malnutrition (hormonal disorder)
- Cirrhosis of the liver (changes the metabolism)
- The Klinefelter syndrome (estrogen increase and androgen reduction from the testicles) Testicular tumors (secrete hormones)
- Chronic renal failure and hyperthyroidism (a change in hormones)
- Medicines. Spironolactone (anti-androgen), calcium blockers (hypertension treatment) such as nifedipine, antibiotics such as ketoconazole, metronidazole (Flagyl), estrogen given for prostate cancer or anti-androgens, the methyl dopa (Aldomet), digitalis , alcohol, marijuana, heroin.